Does it ever make sense to attempt to “corner the market” on a specific gold coin issue? I have seen a number of collectors and dealers do this over the years. Some of these attempts were spectacular successes while others failed miserably. Anyone who collects coins is probably a little eccentric in the first place. Deciding to focus on one or two specific dates and to hoard these isn’t necessarily more eccentric…just a bit, how should I say this, more “compulsive.”
Collectors decide to hoard a specific date for a number of reasons. A student of varieties like Harry Bass owned multiple examples of certain dates because each represented a specific variety or die state that he was researching. A speculator might find a date that he feels is undervalued, buy up all the pieces he is able and have price levels rise due to continually paying more at auction. An example of this was recently accomplished with 1843 quarter eagles in which a clever dealer accumulated a few dozen of these, made prices rise significantly and then sold into a stronger market. Other collectors just fall in love with a specific date, for whatever reason. I remember helping a collector assemble a hoard of 1888-O eagles in Uncirculated that grew to over 100 pieces before he passed away.
If I were going to hoard a specific issue, I would choose one that does not have an unlimited supply. The gentleman who decided to hoard 1888-O eagles eventually came to realize that he was going to have to buy hundreds of pieces to have an impact on the supply. His decision was made more difficult by the fact the fact that this wasn’t a hugely interesting issue.
I would also look to hoard an issue that was relatively cheap. The decision to hoard 1843 quarter eagles made sense because most of these were available in the $500-$2,500 range.
Most importantly, I would choose an issue that had numismatic significance. Back in my collecting days, I was attracted to 1822 Dimes. I thought this date was much undervalued given its rarity and price structure. It was a key date in a reasonably popular series; another important factor to consider. I eventually owned fifteen or so examples but my relatively small budget meant that most of these were in the Good to Fine grade range.
If I were going to focus on a specific issue today, I might look at something like the 1845-O quarter eagle, a coin with a very low mintage figure, a relatively high level of collector demand and its marketability as the key issue in the short, highly collectible New Orleans quarter eagle series. Or, I might focus on the 1841-O eagle, a date with a very small mintage figure and the numismatic significance of being the first Liberty Head eagle produced at the New Orleans mint.
You can also own a couple of examples of one of your favorite issues without being a hoarder in the classic sense of the word. If I owned a nice 1861-D gold dollar and I had the chance to buy another that was equally nice, I might consider salting it away. This coin could be used as an interesting piece of trade bait at some point in the future.
One final suggestion. If you are hoarding a specific issue (or issues) have an intelligent exit strategy. An investor who put together a very large position of circulated 1893-S dollars recently decided to sell them. The good news was that he ran prices up considerably and that, at least on paper, he made a lot of money. The bad news is that he basically decided to dump them all at once and there are now dozens and dozens of examples on the market. This will probably erode a good portion of his profits.